Author Archives: dmitriano

Exponential growth policy of std::vector

Once std::vector is filled (size() equals to capacity()), a subsequent push_back(…) results in an exponential expansion of the vector capacity. The following table shows that the expansion happens when the index reaches a power of two:

index: 0, capacity: 1, address: 0x1fa6c20
index: 1, capacity: 2, address: 0x1fa6c40
index: 2, capacity: 4, address: 0x1fa6c20
index: 4, capacity: 8, address: 0x1fa6c60
index: 8, capacity: 16, address: 0x1fa6c90
index: 16, capacity: 32, address: 0x1fa6ce0
index: 32, capacity: 64, address: 0x1fa6d70
index: 64, capacity: 128, address: 0x1fa6e80
index: 128, capacity: 256, address: 0x1fa7090
index: 256, capacity: 512, address: 0x1fa74a0
index: 512, capacity: 1024, address: 0x1fa7cb0
index: 1024, capacity: 2048, address: 0x1fa8cc0
index: 2048, capacity: 4096, address: 0x1faacd0
index: 4096, capacity: 8192, address: 0x1faece0
index: 8192, capacity: 16384, address: 0x1fb6cf0
index: 16384, capacity: 32768, address: 0x1fc6d00
index: 32768, capacity: 65536, address: 0x1fe6d10
index: 65536, capacity: 131072, address: 0x2026d20
index: 131072, capacity: 262144, address: 0x20a6d30
index: 262144, capacity: 524288, address: 0x21a6d40
index: 524288, capacity: 1048576, address: 0x23a6d50
index: 1048576, capacity: 2097152, address: 0x27a6d60
index: 2097152, capacity: 4194304, address: 0x2fa6d70
index: 4194304, capacity: 8388608, address: 0x7f8e9225f010
index: 8388608, capacity: 16777216, address: 0x7f8e8e25e010
index: 16777216, capacity: 33554432, address: 0x7f8e8625d010
index: 33554432, capacity: 67108864, address: 0x7f8e7625c010
index: 67108864, capacity: 134217728, address: 0x7f8e5625b010
index: 134217728, capacity: 268435456, address: 0x7f8e1625a010
index: 268435456, capacity: 536870912, address: 0x7f8d96259010
index: 536870912, capacity: 1073741824, address: 0x7f8c96258010


How to erase an element with a reverse iterator from C++ container

The following C++ code demonstrates how to erase an element a reverse iterator points to:

#include <iostream>
#include <set>
#include <vector>
#include <assert.h>

int main()
	std::set<int> set;


	std::cout << set.size() << " ";

	auto ri = set.rbegin();

	auto i1 = --ri.base();

	auto i2 = --set.end();

	assert(i1 == i2);


	std::cout << set.size() << std::endl;

The output is ‘0 1’. The key point here is that the reverse iterator is an adaptor for reverse-order traversal that can be created from forward iterator with std::make_reverse_iterator.

Multiple views with OsgQtQuick

I wrote a sample application using OsgQtQuick that shows the Earth in two views:

with the following QML, that I copied from OsgQtQuick samples:


A sample C++ code demonstrating why int is not atomic

The code below demonstrates why it is not guaranteed that 4-byte value being written by another thread is read either as original or final, but it can be read “partially written”:

static constexpr int offset=2;
alignas(64) char vars[64+4-offset];
static volatile unsigned * const p = reinterpret_cast<unsigned *>(&vars[64-offset]);

unsigned getVar()
    return *p;

void loop()
        *p = -1;
        *p = 0;

#include <thread>
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <map>

int main()
    std::thread thread(loop);
    std::map<unsigned,int> xs;
    for(int i=0;i<10000000;++i)
        const auto x=getVar();
    for(const auto& x : xs)
        std::cout << std::setfill('0') << std::setw(8) << std::hex << x.first << ": " << std::dec << x.second << " times\n";
    std::exit(0); // exit, killing the thread without abnormal termination via std::terminate


Compiling the latest version of CMake from sources on Ubuntu

I was unable to add QML resources to a QT Quick application with CMake 2.8 installed on my machine, so I built the latest version of CMake with the following commands:

cd ~/examples
mkdir tools
cd tools
mkdir install
tar -xf ~/Downloads/cmake-3.9.1.tar.gz
cd cmake-3.9.1/
./configure --prefix=/home/dmitry/examples/tools/install/
make -j4
make install

Now my QT application is compiled and run successfully:

~/examples/tools/install/bin/cmake ../../OsgQmlTest/ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug -DCMAKE_MODULE_PATH=/home/user/3rdpart/osg/CMakeModules/ -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/home/dmitry/examples/install
make -j4
make install


Building OsgQtQuick on Ubuntu 14.04

The following section in OsgQtQuick‘s CMakeLists.txt:

find_package(OpenSceneGraph 3.0 REQUIRED

results in CMake searching for FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake file:

strace cmake ../../osgqtquick/ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/home/dmitry/examples/install |& grep -i OpenSceneGraph
access("/home/dmitry/examples/osgqtquick/cmake/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", R_OK) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)
access("/usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", R_OK) = 0
access("/usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", R_OK) = 0
stat("/usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=7438, ...}) = 0
open("/usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", O_RDONLY) = 3
read(3, "# - Find OpenSceneGraph\n# This m"..., 8192) = 7438
read(3, "/* -*-c++-*- OpenSceneGraph - Co"..., 4096) = 3495
read(3, "/* -*-c++-*- OpenSceneGraph - Co"..., 8191) = 3495
  Could NOT find OpenSceneGraph (missing: OPENSCENEGRAPH_LIBRARIES
  /usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake:187 (FIND_PACKAGE_HANDLE_STANDARD_ARGS)
access("/usr/share/cmake-2.8/Modules/FindOpenSceneGraph.cmake", R_OK) = 0


Qt Quick Controls 2 does not support TableView

Qt Quick Controls 2 does not support TableView and looks like they are not going to support it, some notable missing features from Qt Quick Controls 1 also are Action, SplitView and TreeView, so the following QML code would not work:

TableView {

    TableViewColumn {
        role: "time"
        title: qsTr("date/time:")
        width: parent.width - 30

    TableViewColumn {
        role: "score"
        title: qsTr("result:")
        width: 30

    model: boardModel.list

    ScrollIndicator.vertical: ScrollIndicator { }

But there is a solution with ListView, so there can be something like this:


Running Mac OS X with Virtual Box

I successfully installed Mac OS X Snow Leopard on Virtual Box using iBoot. iBoot requires “Enable EFI …” to be unchecked:


Building OsgEarth on Ubuntu 14.04

I already had QT 5.5.1 with GCC 4.7.3 (and probably some libraries, including libcurl4-gnutls-dev, libgdal-dev, glut, that are installed, but not built) on my machine, so I built OSG with the following commands (I am not sure that it makes a sense to clone recursively, but making with ‘CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug’ can be better than with ‘debug’ or ‘DEBUG’, because CMAKE does case-sensitive compare. We can build osgEarth 2.8 against OSG 3.4 or osgEarth master branch against OSG 3.4 or newer..):

cd ~
mkdir examples
cd examples
mkdir install
git clone --recursive
git tag
git reset --hard OpenSceneGraph-3.4.0
mkdir -p build/osg
cd build/osg
cmake ../../OpenSceneGraph/ -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/home/dmitry/examples/install
make -j3 install
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/home/dmitry/examples/install/lib64


Configuring input languages in KDE

If you need Russian language, for example, in KDE you go to System Settings->Input Devices->Keyboard, press Add button and select it:

KDE switch language